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107, 2 FM - LADÍME S VAMI. VŽDY A VŠADE!



107, 2 FM - LADÍME S VAMI. VŽDY A VŠADE!

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Aj keď pôsobí hrozivo, vyjadruje rešpekt a súdržnosť. Rituál haka predvádzal aj Aquaman

Napísal na 11. mája 2021

Je pravda, že po prvýkrát v každom človeku vyvolá zmiešané pocity. Tie sa však môžu pretaviť do obdivu, kultúrneho úžasu či zimomriavok.

Haka pochádza z Nového Zélandu a a v jazyku pôvodných obyvateľov, maorijčine, znamená tanec. Je to výrazový skupinový tanec, ktorý vyžaduje pohyb celého tela, energické a temperamentné pohyby, hlasový sprievod a vydávanie zvukov pomocou vlastného tela.

Najčastejšie prvky tohto rituálu sú vyplazovanie jazyka, doširoka otvorené oči, dupanie, údery do hrude a stehien a kľačanie. Aj keď v histórii sa často spája s mužmi a ich mentálnou prípravou na boj, haku môžu vykonávať aj ženy a deti. Haka pred bitkou mala zastrašiť nepriateľa do takej miery, že k boju v najlepšom prípade nemalo dôjsť.

Novozélanďania a členovia kmeňov vykonávajú haku aj ako uvítací ceremoniál. Tento typ haky sa volá pōwhiri. Tento typ sme mohli vidieť pri privítaní hercov a produkčného tímu na filmovom pľaci trilógie The Hobbit v roku 2012. V nasledujúcom videu si haku pōwhiri môžete pozrieť od 7. minúty.

Rôzne haky pre rôzne príležitosti

Síce môže pôsobiť kruto a evokovať hrubé spôsoby, dnes sa rituál haka praktizuje aj na rodinných stretnutiach, ako sú svadby, pohreby či oslavy narodenín. Ide o oslavu komunity a aktu stretnutia sa. Dokonca podčiarkuje dôležitosť rodinnej udalosti a tí, ktorí haku predvádzajú, ňou preukazujú úctu.

Na svadbách sa väčšinou predvádza haka s názvom Tika tonu. Haku Tika tonu zložil pred viac ako sto rokmi jeden maorijský náčelník svojmu dospievajúcemu synovi. Radí mu v nej, ako prekonať problémy a správne sa rozhodnúť v ťažkých situáciach.

Pred pár rokmi internet obletelo video haky Tika tonu zo svadby novozélandského páru Benjamina a Aaliyah Armstrongovcov. Túto haku zorganizoval pre ženícha jeho brat na znak žoviálnosti a spolupatričnosti.

Rituál haka v športe

Svetová verejnosť pozná haku predovšetkým z ragbyových ihrísk. Novozélandský tím All Blacks predvádzal pred zápasmi haku Ka Mate. Tú pred viac ako dvesto rokmi zložil maorijský náčelník Te Rauparaha. Pred 16 rokmi tím zmenil choreografiu aj názov haky na Kapa O Pango.

Derek Lardelli, ktorý pre tím zložil túto haku, povedal, že má hráčov pripraviť po fyzickej aj duchovnej stránke na zápas a zvýšiť ich sebadôveru. Nemá však pôsobiť bojovo, ale ako ceremoniál.

Nový Zéland má aj svoj ženský ragbyový tím, The Black Ferns, ktorý taktiež praktizuje haku pred zápasmi, ale aj po nich. Táto sa volá Ko Uhia Mai a zložil ju Te Whetu Werohia Tipiwai, významná osobnosť novozélandského ragby.

Haka v šoubiznise

Haka sa ukázala svetu aj na červenom koberci, v tomto konkrétnom prípade na modrom, a to v podaní herca Jasona Momou, jeho detí a kolegov pri premiére filmu Aquaman. Momoa má blízko k polynézskej kultúre, pretože sám má korene na Havaji a deklamoval to aj touto hakou.

Pravdou však je, že americké publikum nezareagovalo na tento kultúrny prejav práve najvhodnejšie, keďže z davu sa ozvali smiech a hlášky ako: „That´s so cute.“ (v preklade to je chutné – pozn. red.)

Zdroj: britannica.com, interez.sk, newzealand.com, YouTube, allblacks.com, teaomaori.news


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